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  • Irrigation planning is a management operation used to determine irrigation time and water level. This means that the purpose of irrigation planning is to determine the exact amount of water used on the farm and to schedule it regularly, which can be done by measuring soil moisture retention. Effective planning requires knowledge of the following parameters:

    • Soil moisture retention capacity
    • Keep moisture available at all times
    • Water used by the plant or evaporation and transpiration
    • Plant susceptibility to moisture stress at each stage of growth
    • Effective irrigation or rain received
    • Ability to access water resources and time required to irrigate each farm

    تجهیزات آبیاری قطره ای
    The decision to irrigate depends on estimating soil and plant moisture status and the indicators and strategies. Optimal irrigation planning based on measuring or estimating soil moisture retention and plant water requirements is one of the best management operations for irrigation management. Irrigation and Irrigation Planning are indicators used to determine the need for irrigation. The most commonly used irrigation indicator is soil moisture retention and soil moisture stress. The final decision depends on irrigation indicators, strategy and irrigation goals. Irrigators should define the goal and select irrigation and strategy criteria based on it. Soil moisture capacity to start irrigation depends on farming strategies and goals. For example, if the goal is to maximize yields, it should be irrigated so that soil moisture is always above the critical level. The critical limit represents the amount of soil moisture, the drier conditions of which may reduce the yield compared to the maximum production capacity. The amount of water used also depends on the farmer's strategies. For example, a farmer can replenish soil moisture to the capacity of the crop or less. If it is not possible for rain to occur and the irrigator wants to increase the irrigation cycle, it is better to irrigate the soil to the capacity of the crop. If there is a possibility of rain, it does not make sense to irrigate the soil to the capacity of the crop and not keep space for rain. If the farmer's goal is to maximize net return, it is necessary to consider criteria such as net income. The importance of irrigation planning is that it enables the irrigator to use the right amount of water to achieve his goal. Increases irrigation efficiency. The key to achieving this is to accurately measure the volume of water used or the depth of water consumed. The farmer cannot manage the water to maximize efficiency without knowing how much water has been used. It should be noted that uniform distribution of water throughout the farm is very important to achieve maximum benefits from irrigation planning and management. Proper use of water prevents over-irrigation (over-irrigation) and under-irrigation (over-irrigation). Irrigation can waste water, energy and manpower, wash food from the roots of the plant and away. It is available from the plant, reducing soil aeration and thus reducing plant yield. Low irrigation also reduces yields by putting stress on the plant.
    Benefits of Irrigation Planning
    1. Product performance and quality increase as a result of net income.
    2. It enables the farmer to minimize the water stress of the plant and maximize the yield while planning the alternation of irrigation between different fields.
    3. By reducing irrigation, water and manpower costs are reduced, and as a result, the maximum use of soil moisture storage is achieved.
    4. Reducing the adverse environmental effects of leaching and surface runoff.
    5. Surface runoff and deep leakage are reduced and as a result the cost of fertilizer is reduced.
    6. Water stored as a result of irrigation planning can be used to irrigate low-value plants, which cannot be irrigated during dehydration, which increases revenue.
    7. Drowning problems are reduced and the need for drainage is reduced.
    8. Irrigation planning helps to control problems in the root zone of the plant by regulating the leaching.

  • To increase irrigation efficiency, the following measures will be useful: removing the maze of traditional and dredged mines and clearing slowing down factors such as thorns and weeds, as well as dredging and improving the drainage network and correcting dams by increasing storage volume. O them
    Land fragmentation and improvement of land slopes with machinery and leveling equipment should also be prevented from paddy cultivation in sloping lands and mountain slopes as well as sea shores due to high water discharge as long as there are good arable lands in the plain. .
    Modification and modification of traditional irrigation methods to pressurized irrigation system for other agricultural products.
    Reducing the permeability of the bed soil if the type of soil is light and coarse-grained by increasing the clay and strengthening it, if it is not possible to cover the concrete due to high cost.
    Develop a plan and implement a comprehensive plan for agricultural education and promotion.
    Observance of the cultivation pattern by farmers and guaranteeing the purchase and sale of these products by the relevant government agencies.
    Identify the types of plants that can be cultivated (cultivation pattern) in each region according to climatic conditions and water and soil
    Determining the type and texture of soil in each region and its permeability.
    Water requirements of the plant during the growth stages and determining the intervals of irrigation time for each plant according to the climate of each region, the amount of water mode required for each hectare and its quality in the region for each type of plant.
    Coverage of water supply and sewerage canals in areas where a drop in water supply is evident.
    Construction of dividing dams and valves and gabion dams by installing valves, dividers and measuring gauges.
    Preparing and compiling a water circulation program and applying optimal distribution management in the operation of the relevant facilities. Because, unlike pressurized irrigation, surface irrigation systems require management work and careful monitoring of proper distribution rather than investment work. Although farmers are familiar with the experiment in this way, scientific advances and the transfer of technical knowledge to increase irrigation efficiency have not been passed on to farmers.

    What is a superabsorbent ?
    It is a soil additive that absorbs and retains water and nutrients and is associated with soil cultivation and helps the plant grow optimally, reducing water loss and irrigation costs. The base of these polymers is organic and they are produced artificially. They are made of potassium polyacrylate and polyacrylamide copolymers. Its unique feature is its high water absorption capacity and its preservation. These materials are not used in cultivated soil after continuous use. It does not change and plants do not contaminate living organisms in soil or surface water. Studies by the German Environment Agency and other countries have shown that the use of this substance has no side effects on humans, plants, soil and the environment. These materials absorb water about 500-200 times their own weight, however, after dehydration of dry grains, they create super-absorbent grains of gel seeds. Using this polymer, the irrigation cycle can be increased. These materials include three types of cations, anions, and neutrals. In agriculture, the anionic type is considered to have a negative charge. Anionic super attractions, with their high cation capacity, are able to absorb significant amounts of water, absorb effective and useful cations in plant growth, and prevent them from being wasted while providing them with the plant when needed. These materials are odorless, colorless and free of soil, water and plant tissue contamination.
    Advantages of using superabsorbent polymers in agriculture
    • Increase water and soil nutrient retention capacity for a long time
    • Reduce the number of irrigation shifts by 50%
    • Uniform water consumption for plants
    • Faster and more optimal root growth by storing food
    • Reduce the washing of water and nutrients in the soil
    • Reduce irrigation costs
    • Provide soil moisture
    • Increase the suction capacity of superabsorbents and cation exchange in soil
    • Maximize product production potential
    • Faster and healthier growth of plants, especially in very hot and dry areas
    • Optimal use of chemical fertilizers
    • Protect roots on the soil from drying out during transport and storage of seedlings
    • Better aeration in the soil
    • Possibility of cultivation in desert areas and sloping surfaces
    • Increased activity and proliferation of mycorrhizal fungi
    • Stability and long-lasting super absorbent effect
    • Strengthen porosity, nutrition and stability of culture structure